Hotels and motels offer guests a comfort and relaxation experience during their stay. Evidence is mounting that energy efficiency measures enhance guest comfort and wellness through improved temperature control, lighting quality, and air quality.
No-cost and low-cost operations and maintenance (O&M) measures that reduce energy and water use are shown below. Deeper retrofit opportunities are outlined in the second table. Due to the transitory nature of hotel and motel guests, turning off space lighting and heating and cooling during vacant periods, whether through increased controls and sensors, are common savings opportunities.
Hotel and motel owners will be excited to hear that energy and water efficiency drives higher net operating income, property net asset value, and improves brand image. The latter is becoming increasingly important. In Booking.com’s Sustainable Travel Report 2021, 73% of the 29,000 global travelers contributing to the report state they are more likely to choose an accommodation that has adopted sustainable practices over those that haven’t.
Table 1: No-cost and low-cost energy and water conservation measures for hotels and motels
|Optimize exterior light scheduling using photocell sensors
|Use photocell sensor(s) to turn exterior building lights on and off 30 to 60 minutes after sunset and before sunrise, respectively. Photocells detect sunrise and sunset accurately making them more energy-efficient than clock-based timers that may lose sync with night and daytime.
|Add LEDs to exit signs
|Since they run 24/7, install LEDs in exit signs to maximize their efficiency.
|Education / Training
|Employee education and training
|This measure involves energy and water conservation awareness and training for employees and guests as well. Empowering and engaging employees can go a long way in your efficiency improvement goals.
|Add timers to AC-DC elevator motors
|Add or repair damaged timers on AC-DC elevator motor converters to prevent continuous running.
|Replace damaged door weatherstripping
|Make sure that damaged weatherstripping is replaced and drafts are eliminated on doors including exterior, unit, and hallways doors.
|Use an infrared camera to identify and remedy building energy leak points. As-built drawings can also help in the leakage identification process.
|Reduce corridor thermostats
|Corridor thermostats do not need to be kept to the same temperature as suites. Corridor thermostats can usually be set to 16-18 ℃ without sacrificing occupant comfort.
|Install extended surface area air filter
|If both pre- and final filters are utilized in the HVAC system, replacing both with an extended surface area filter may help the system run more efficiently.
|Repair leaky ductwork
|Repair ductwork leaks to ensure the HVAC system is operating efficiently with no duct leakage.
|Adopt a regular HVAC schedule
|HVAC systems should be inspected and adjusted twice a year to ensure proper functioning. In cold climates, this can be done before the winter and summer seasons.
|Calibrate HVAC air and water sensors
|Building operators should ensure the sensors (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure, flow) that optimize building heating and cooling are calibrated periodically to ensure proper function.
|Reset supply air-temperature setpoint
|This feature of an HVAC system allows the air temperature supplied to the building’s zones (rooms) to be adjusted automatically to the zone’s needs, rather than supplying at a constant air temperature.
|When outside temperatures permit, make sure economizers are functional and utilize outside air temperatures in meeting building heating and cooling loads. This is a good step to reduce unneeded mechanical heating or cooling.
|Chiller and cooling tower maintenance
|For buildings with a chiller and cooling tower system, regular maintenance, including cleaning, will ensure the system is operating at peak efficiency.
|Domestic Hot Water
|Cover pools and saunas when not in use
|Covering pools and saunas when not in use can prevent heat loss and reduce heating needs.
|Domestic Hot Water
|Lower Domestic Hot Water (DHW) temperature set point
|There may be opportunities for Domestic Hot Water (DHW) set-points temperatures to be reduced (e.g., if currently set at 136.5℉ or higher).
|Inspect and repair damaged pipe insulation
|Making sure the heating and cooling system piping system, including the domestic hot water loop, is properly insulated will ensure maintenance staff safety as well as maximize system efficiency.
|Chilled water temperature reset
|During periods of low cooling load needs, increase the setpoint of the water chiller to increase efficiency.
|Domestic Hot Water
|Ensure proper boiler combustion efficiency
|Conduct a combustion analysis and a carbon monoxide test at least once a year to ensure efficiency and safety
|Adopt water-friendly landscaping
|Landscaping with plants having low water needs (such as native plants) can reduce the outdoor water use on your property.
|Repair leaky faucets
|Repairing leaky faucets reduces water waste.
|Clean heating and cooling coils and fins
|In the air handling unit (AHU), clean the heating and cooling exchanger’s coils and fins to maximize efficiency.
Beyond O&M measures, hotels and motels can consider deeper retrofit opportunities to drive deeper decarbonization and cost reductions. Deep retrofits include such measures as lighting retrofits, kitchen appliance upgrades (including mini-fridges), and boiler replacements.
Table 2: Deeper energy and water conservation measures for hotels and motels
|Install low-flow faucets, showerheads, and dual-flush toilets
|Installing low-flow faucets, showerheads and dual flush toilets in suites and common areas can reduce the amount of water used during day-to-day guest life without impacting their experience.
|Replace old mini fridges
|Old mini-fridges that are 10 years or older should be considered for replacement with new energy-efficient options. Ensure that the old fridges are disposed of properly.
|Interior lighting retrofit
|There are different levels of lighting retrofits. A simple lighting retrofit involves light and ballast replacement with the latest LED technology. A deeper lighting retrofit is a broader lighting redesign that can include LPD and light placement optimization, daylight harvesting, and sensor controls.
Common areas and offices can be a good starting point. When access permits, in-suite lighting upgrades can be considered.
Tunable white LED systems could be considered as new findings on their non-energy benefits, including positive health impact, emerge.
|Domestic Hot Water
|Adopt towel and bedding wash reduction program
|Consider the adoption of a program that encourages visitors to reuse towels and bedding for their stay rather than having everything washed each day.
|Install occupancy sensors
|Install occupancy sensors in transient areas such as gyms and employee lunch rooms to turn lights off when vacant. This reduces energy waste from “day-burning” lights that could be intentionally or accidentally left on.
|Add daylight harvesting
|Implement daylight harvesting to leverage natural light. When daylight is sufficient to offset indoor lights, these indoor lights turn off, automatically. This measure can be considered on its own or as part of a lighting retrofit. Both common area and in-suite opportunities may exist.
|Exterior Lighting Retrofit
|Retrofitting exterior lights with newer, efficient versions can increase efficiency. A full redesign based on illumination needs can be considered.
|Install block heater timers
|In cold climate tenant/occupant parking lots, cars may plug into block heat plug outlets for a whole day. Since cars only need 3-4 hours of heating per day a block heater timer can be installed to reduce the electricity consumed by car block heaters.
|Add common area office equipment on/off controls
|Add computer energy management software and use smart power strips to automatically turn off electronic equipment (computers, lights, etc.) in common areas when not in use. Ensure large TVs in common areas are turned off when not in use.
|Purchase energy-efficient appliances and equipment
|Replace aging or end-of-life equipment in common areas and suites with energy-efficient equipment (commercial kitchen appliances, guest mini-fridges, computers, printers, etc.)
|Update windows to current or emerging “net-zero” building codes. This can be done either before or at the existing windows’ end-of-life.
|Upgrade wall insulation
|Update wall insulation to current or emerging “net-zero” building codes. This may be combined with other envelope initiatives such as window replacement.
|Add roof insulation
|Roofs are a key source of energy loss. Add to, or replace the existing insulation to increase efficiency. This is most economic when the roof is due for replacement.
|Add a Vestibule
|Vestibules isolate the inside environment from the outside environment during occupant entry. Vestibules prevent the loss of heated or cooled air from escaping when exterior doors open.
|Kitchen electric loads
|Install a variable-speed hood controller
|In comparison to a constant speed hood, a variable-speed hood controller can detect when a commercial kitchen exhaust hood should be on and turn it off when not needed, saving energy.
|Install deadband thermostats and/or widen deadband zone.
|Usually, temperatures within a building’s zone remain comfortable between 20.6℃ (69℉) and 23.9℃ (75℉). Installing and setting deadband thermostats can maintain occupant comfort while reducing HVAC heating and cooling.
|Reduce Minimum Airflow in VAV box
|In variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC systems, there may be an opportunity to reduce the minimum airflow when no heating or cooling is provided, saving energy.
|Replace Supply fan motor and equip with VFD or VSD
|Supply fan motors have become more efficient over time and replacement can be considered even before the fan’s end-of-life. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) or Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) enhance efficiency further by modulating motor speeds at part load conditions, increasing overall building efficiency.
|Whether the HVAC system is at its end-of-life or the building’s function has changed and no longer aligns with the existing HVAC system, a full HVAC replacement with the latest technology will have a drastic impact on building efficiency.
|Domestic Hot Water
|Add VFD to water circulation pump
|A variable frequency drive (VFD) can be added to a water circulation pump to increase the efficiency at part load conditions.
|Add VFD to chiller compressor
|The chiller can operate more efficiently at part load conditions when its compressor is equipped with a variable frequency drive (VFD)
|Replace boiler with condensing boiler
|Condensing boilers are an energy-efficient upgrade and should be considered when replacing a boiler.
|Investigate onsite combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities
|Depending on input fuels available in your area (natural gas, biomass, etc.), a CHP system can allow your building to produce its own heat and power, reducing energy grid reliance. Discussion with internal O&M teams is a good starting point followed by preliminary technical, economic, and regulatory analysis.
|Investigate onsite solar generation opportunities
|Depending on the solar potential in your area and the layout and solar readiness of your building, installing solar photovoltaic (PV) cells for onsite generation could help offset your reliance on grid power and the power bill. Discussion with internal O&M teams is a good starting point followed by preliminary technical, economic, and regulatory analysis.